Dissemination of breast cancers to the brain is associated with poor patient outcome and limited therapeutic options. In this study we sought to identify novel regulators of brain metastasis by profiling mouse mammary carcinoma cells spontaneously metastasising from the primary tumour in an immunocompetent syngeneic host. Two differentially expressed genes, Id2 and Aldh3a1were validated in in-vivo models using mouse and human cancer cell lines.
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Joyesh Raj, Michael H. Objective: The study's purpose was to determine whether the volume used in saline solution-filled breast implants affects the rate of spontaneous deflation. Methods: We performed a retrospective analysis of saline solution-filled implants made by a single manufacturer and used for primary augmentations during a 7-year period. Results: We found a spontaneous deflation rate of 7.
Immunology textbooks refer to BM only as a primary lymphatic organ with the function of hemato- and lymphopoiesis. There is no mentioning of secondary immune functions initiation of antigen-specific immune responsesin particular not about T cell mediated immune responses. Secondary immune functions are described only for secondary lymphoid tissues such as lymph nodes, spleen, mucosa-associated lymphoid tissues MALT and skin-associated lymphoid tissues SALT 1.
Metastasis is the most common cause of mortality in breast cancer patients worldwide. Both primary tumor growth and spontaneous metastases were increased in NSG mice compared to nude mice. In addition, a pattern of metastasis similar to that observed in human breast cancer patients metastases to the lungs, liver, bones, brain, and lymph nodes was found in NSG mice.
Mammoplasia is the normal or spontaneous enlargement of human breasts. Mammoplasia can be an effect or side effect of various drugsincluding estrogens  antiandrogens such as spironolactone cyproterone acetate bicalutamide  and finasteride  growth hormone  and drugs that elevate prolactin levels such as D 2 receptor antagonists like antipsychotics e. In puberty induction in hypogonadal girls and in feminizing hormone therapy in transgender womenas well as hormonal breast enhancement in women with breast hypoplasia or small breastsmammoplasia is a desired effect.
Click cancer types for detailed descriptions of mouse models. Corral et al. Dragani et al. Guy et al.
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Lymph nodes LNs are strategically positioned and highly organized structures that provide optimal interactions of components of the immune system to induce immune response against invading pathogens and tumors. The relationship between tumors and the immune system is complex and it is now appreciated that the immune system has a dual role in cancer. Indeed, it does not only suppress tumor growth by killing cancer cells or impeding their growth but also support tumor progression by shaping tumor immunogenicity or promoting immunosuppressive conditions within the tumor environment [ 1 ]. Integrity of lymphatic vessels LVs and LNs is not only critical for proper immunologic functions but also for maintaining fluid balance by draining interstitial fluid, lipids, cytokines, chemokines and growth factors from tissues back to the blood circulation [ 23 ].